11 July 2002 Large deformation model of ion-exchange actuators using electrochemical potentials
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A composite actuator based on a polymer electrolyte and metal electrodes is described. Electrode deposition is described qualitatively with corresponding experimental results. A general continuum model describing the transport and deformation of solid polymer electrolyte processes is developed. The formulation is based on global integral postulates for the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, charge, and the second law of thermodynamics. The global equations are then localized in the volume and on the material surfaces bounding the polymer. The model is simplified to a three component system of a fixed negatively charged polymeric matrix, diffusing hydroxonium ions, and free water within the polymer matrix. Contrary to the existing electrostatic models, the deformation is attributed to water induced swelling. The proposed internal pressure based model includes the stress relaxation phenomenon due to water redistribution governed by Darcy's law.
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Eniko T. Enikov, Eniko T. Enikov, Geon Seok Seo, Geon Seok Seo, "Large deformation model of ion-exchange actuators using electrochemical potentials", Proc. SPIE 4695, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (11 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.475165; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.475165

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