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11 July 2002 Stress-dependent behavior of d33 and Y33E Yin Navy Type III and VI ceramics
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Study of the mechanical stress dependence of hard and soft active ceramic properties is important because many submarine sonar transducers include a compressive mechanical prestress throughout ac electrical activation. The level of prestress to which a ceramic in a transducer is subjected also depends in part on operational factors, such as the level of ac activation and depth of the submersible. This investigation builds upon prior work by Yang et al. by examining the time dependence and the uniaxial stress dependence of the average, differential and dynamic d33 and Y33E of Navy Type III (PZT8) and Navy Type VI (PZT5H) lead zirconate titanate ceramics. This research adds higher levels of prestress and various mid-level ac stress cycles. Under short-circuit conditions, large and small compressive stresses are applied to the samples while measuring dielectric displacement and strain. The piezoelectric coefficient, d33, is evaluated using the direct method as a function of time, prestress level, and ac stress magnitude. The constant-field modulus is calculated from the slope of the corresponding stress-strain curves. Intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to these properties are discussed.
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Rachel S. Levinson Fisher, Elizabeth A. McLaughlin, and Harold C. Robinson "Stress-dependent behavior of d33 and Y33E Yin Navy Type III and VI ceramics", Proc. SPIE 4699, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics, (11 July 2002);

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