15 July 2002 Novel horn designs for ultrasonic/sonic cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling
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Abstract
A variety of Industrial applications exist where power ultrasonic elements such as the ultrasonic horn are used. These included the Automotive, Instruments, Foods, Medical, Textiles and Material Joining and Fabrication Industries. In many of these devices the ultrasonic horn is the key component. The standard transducer used in these devices consists of three main parts, the backing, the piezoelectric elements and the horn. Standard horn designs have changed very little since their inception. There are four common types of standard horns. They are; constant, linear, exponential and stepped, which refer to the degree to which the area changes from the base to the tip. A magnification in the strain occurs in the horn that in general is a function of the ratio of diameters. In addition the device is generally driven at resonance to further amplify the strain. The resonance amplification is in general determined by the mechanical Q (attenuation) of the horn material and radiation damping. The horn length primarily determines the resonance frequency. For a 22 kHz resonance frequency a stepped horn of titanium has a length of approximately 8 cm. Although these standard horns are found in many current industrial designs they suffer from some key limitations. In many applications it would be useful to reduce the resonance frequency however this would require device lengths of the order of fractions of meters which may be impractical. In addition, manufacturing a horn requires the turning down of the stock material (eg. Titanium) from the larger outer diameter to the horn tip diameter, which is both time consuming and wasteful. In this paper we will present a variety of novel horn designs, which overcome some of the limitations discussed above. One particular design that has been found to overcome these limitations is the folded horn. In this design the horn elements are folded which reduce the overall length of the resonator (physical length) but maintain or increase the acoustic length. In addition initial experiments indicate that the tip displacement can be further adjusted by phasing the bending displacements and the extensional displacements. The experimental results for a variety of these and other novel horn designs will be presented and compared to the results predicted by theory.
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Stewart Sherrit, Stewart Sherrit, Steven A. Askins, Steven A. Askins, Mike Gradziol, Mike Gradziol, Benjamin P. Dolgin, Benjamin P. Dolgin, Xiaoqi Bao, Xiaoqi Bao, Zensheu Chang, Zensheu Chang, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, } "Novel horn designs for ultrasonic/sonic cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling", Proc. SPIE 4701, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, (15 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474671; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474671
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