19 July 2002 CCD fingerprint method for digital still cameras
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Abstract
We have reported the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) fingerprint method for identification of digital still cameras. The CCD fingerprint method utilizes the nonhomogeneous nature of dark currents in CCDs. In this study, we have measured CCD defects patterns of various digital still cameras including professional cameras and cheap ones with various resolution and compression rates. As a result, CCD defect pattern was detected in all cameras except for a low-resolution cheap camera using only one image. Resolution mode change of digital cameras did not affect the position of defect points in general but in some cases, relative pixel intensity varied. Image compression did not affect the pixel position for blank images within normal compression rate, but when there existed light in the background, the pixel position was blurred as the compression rate became high. In conclusion, it is recognized that the CCD fingerprint method can be applied in principle to digital still cameras, that is, individual camera identification can be achieved in principle by using images taken with the camera.
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Naoki Saitoh, Naoki Saitoh, Kenji Kurosawa, Kenji Kurosawa, Kenro Kuroki, Kenro Kuroki, Norimitsu Akiba, Norimitsu Akiba, Zeno J. Geradts, Zeno J. Geradts, Jurrien Bijhold, Jurrien Bijhold, } "CCD fingerprint method for digital still cameras", Proc. SPIE 4709, Investigative Image Processing II, (19 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474737; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474737
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