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6 August 2002 Target localization using acoustic time-difference of arrival in distributed sensor networks
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Time-difference of arrival (TDOA) estimates are an attractive means for geolocation of targets via low-cost, distributed, single-element acoustic sensors. Relative to distributed beamforming approaches. TDOA localization requires significantly less bandwidth between sensor nodes and exhibits greater tolerance to uncertainties in sensor node location and data synchronization. In this paper, we present algorithms for estimating TDOA over low-bandwidth links, and for combining these estimates to provide geolocation of targets. Both of these components are adapted specifically to operation in a low-power, low-bandwidth distributed sensor environment. TDOA estimation is performed using spectral peaks from the acoustic signals, which allows drastic reduction in the bandwidth required to collaboratively determine bearing to target. Previously published localization algorithms were modified to minimize the required communication bandwidth and to support scaling of the algorithm to many distributed nodes. The performance of the various localization algorithms is simulated and compared for several scenarios. The preferred algorithms are also applied to pre-recorded field data and the resulting geolocation estimates are compared to ground truth data.
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Peter W. Boettcher, Jefferey A. Sherman, and Gary A. Shaw "Target localization using acoustic time-difference of arrival in distributed sensor networks", Proc. SPIE 4741, Battlespace Digitization and Network-Centric Warfare II, (6 August 2002);

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