1 August 2002 Alternating phase-shifting masks: phase determination and impact of quartz defects--theoretical and experimental results
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Proceedings Volume 4754, Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology IX; (2002) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.476982
Event: Photomask and Next Generation Lithography Mask Technology IX, 2002, Yokohama, Japan
Abstract
In optical lithography balancing the aerial image of an alternating phase shifting mask (alt. PSM) is a major challenge. For the exposure wavelengths (currently 248nm and 193nm) an optimum etching method is necessary to overcome imbalance effects. Defects play an important role in the imbalances of the aerial image. In this contribution defects will be discussed by using the methodology of global phase imbalance control also for local imbalances which are a result of quartz defects. The effective phase error can be determined with an AIMS-system by measuring the CD width between the images of deep- and shallow trenches at different focus settings. The AIMS results are analyzed in comparison to the simulated and lithographic print results of the alternating structures. For the analysis of local aerial image imbalances it is necessary to investigate the capability of detecting these phase defects with state of the art inspection systems. Alternating PSMs containing programmed defects were inspected with different algorithms to investigate the capture rate of special phase defects in dependence on the defect size. Besides inspection also repair of phase defects is an important task. In this contribution we show the effect of repair on the optical behavior of phase defects. Due to the limited accuracy of the repair tools the repaired area still shows a certain local phase error. This error can be caused either by residual quartz material or a substrate damage. The influence of such repair induced phase errors on the aerial image were investigated.
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Uwe A. Griesinger, Uwe A. Griesinger, Wolfgang Dettmann, Wolfgang Dettmann, Mario Hennig, Mario Hennig, Jan P. Heumann, Jan P. Heumann, Roderick Koehle, Roderick Koehle, Ralf Ludwig, Ralf Ludwig, Martin Verbeek, Martin Verbeek, Mardjan Zarrabian, Mardjan Zarrabian, "Alternating phase-shifting masks: phase determination and impact of quartz defects--theoretical and experimental results", Proc. SPIE 4754, Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology IX, (1 August 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.476982; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.476982
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