22 October 2002 Surface and interface roughness in magnetic thin films: a comparison using carbon-nanotube atomic force microscopy and soft-x-ray scattering
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Abstract
Characterization of surface and interfacial morphology of magnetic materials is crucial to understand their properties. While AFM is unparalleled in directly determining surface morphology, x-ray scattering has distinct advantages for measuring both the surface and buried interfaces. However, x-ray scattering (XRS) requires modeling to extract roughness parameters. We review the techniques for performing and modeling XRS and show that the azimuthal transverse scattering geometry offers many advantages to in-plane scattering techniques, including a simplified modeling process and an extended scanning range in reciprocal space. To validate our modeling, the surface morphology of several magnetic thin films (d < 10 nm) is characterized using soft-x-ray scattering and carbon-nanotube tip atomic force microscopy (CNT-AFM). Results for out-of-plane XRS and CNT-AFM are within good quantitative agreement within their shared experimental bandpass.
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Bryan M. Barnes, F. Flack, John J. Kelly, Doug P. Lagally, Don E. Savage, Max G. Lagally, "Surface and interface roughness in magnetic thin films: a comparison using carbon-nanotube atomic force microscopy and soft-x-ray scattering", Proc. SPIE 4780, Surface Scattering and Diffraction for Advanced Metrology II, (22 October 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.453790; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.453790
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