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24 December 2002 High-resolution Carbon/Carbon Multilayers
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To synthesize X-ray optical multilayers showing both high resolution and high reflectivity, spacer and absorber materials with low absorption coefficients for the desired spectral range are required. Beside the well-known candidates the material system Carbon / Carbon is interesting because of its low absorption coefficient over a wide spectral range and the opportunity, to deposit C-layers with different modifications, i.e. different optical properties. Simulations of C/C multilayers with different period thicknesses d and single layer densities ρ show, that reflectivities R (Cu Kα ) > 80% and a resolution ΔΘ≈0.002° can be achieved for C/C layer stacks with d= 3 nm and N= 1000 periods. An advanced large area Pulsed Laser Deposition (LA-PLD) technology was used to deposit C/C multilayers on Si-substrates up to 4" diameter. The carbon film growth conditions for the spacer and absorber layers were optimised by the variation of selected laser parameters like pulse energy and ablation wavelength, to achieve a sufficient density contrast and smooth interfaces. C/C multilayers with period thickness d= 1.1...7.0 nm and more than 500 periods were deposited. The X-ray optical performance of the C/C multilayers was characterized by means of X-ray reflectometry. A reflectivity R > 50 % (CuKα) was measured for C/C multilayers with d= 17.2 nm and N= 106 periods. A peak resolution (Δλ/λ) ≈ 1.1 % was obtained for a C/C multilayer structure with N= 80 periods and a period thickness d= 1.1nm. Results of TEM investigations indicate a regular morphology as well as smooth interfaces in the C-C layer stacks. Low compressive stresses were determined in C/C multilayers with different period thicknesses using X-ray diffraction techniques.
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Alexander M. Baranov, Reiner Dietsch, Thomas Holz, Maik Menzel, Danny Weissbach, Roland Scholz, Valeri Melov, and Juergen Schreiber "High-resolution Carbon/Carbon Multilayers", Proc. SPIE 4782, X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, (24 December 2002);

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