10 January 2003 3DX: a micromachined silicon crystallographic x-ray detector
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We are developing pixel detectors for macromolecular crystallography, in which diffracted X-rays are directly absorbed by high-resistivity, crystalline silicon that has been micro-machined by inductively-coupled plasma etching. Arrays of 64 × 64 holes at 150 μm pitch are first formed by etching through the entire silicon bulk, then backfilled with polysilicon that is doped to create conducting p and n type columnar electrodes. When reverse biased, these electrodes generate electric fields that define the individual pixels. By forming conducting polysilicon on the sides of the sensors, which are cut-out of the silicon wafer by plasma etching, the entire surface of the detector may be made active. CMOS readout integrated circuits are conductively bump bonded behind each 3D detector, providing a direct connection to every pixel. A large array will be assembled with no insensitive bands along the edges by overlapping these sensors, each of area 0.96cm2. This detector will measure X-ray signal intensities of up to 105 events/pixel/sec without any pile-up loss, by using an integration method that retains the benefits of discrete photon counting. The detector sensitivity will be highly uniform, it will not exhibit any dark signal or spurious noise, and no geometric distortion will occur within each sensor.
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John Morse, Christopher J. Kenney, Edwin M. Westbrook, Istvan Naday, Sherwood I. Parker, "3DX: a micromachined silicon crystallographic x-ray detector", Proc. SPIE 4784, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors and Applications IV, (10 January 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.451164; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.451164

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