10 January 2003 Medical imaging with mercuric iodide direct digital radiography flat-panel x-ray detectors
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Abstract
Photoconductive polycrystalline mercuric iodide coated on amorphous silicon flat panel thin film transistor (TFT) arrays is the best candidate for direct digital X-ray detectors for radiographic and fluoroscopic applications in medical imaging. The mercuric iodide is vacuum deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD). This coating technology is capable of being scaled up to sizes required in common medical imaging applications. Coatings were deposited on 2”×2” and 4”×4” TFT arrays for imaging performance evaluation and also on conductive-coated glass substrates for measurements of X-ray sensitivity and dark current. TFT arrays used included pixel pitch dimensions of 100, 127 and 139 microns. Coating thickness between 150 microns and 250 microns were tested with beam energy between 25 kVP and 100kVP utilizing exposure ranges typical for both fluoroscopic, and radiographic imaging. X-ray sensitivities measured for the mercuric iodide samples and coated TFT detectors were superior to any published results for competitive materials (up to 7100 ke/mR/pixel for 100 micron pixels). It is believed that this higher sensitivity can result in fluoroscopic imaging signal levels high enough to overshadow electronic noise. Diagnostic quality of radiographic and fluoroscopic images of up to 15 pulses per second were demonstrated. Image lag characteristics appear adequate for fluoroscopic rates. Resolution tests on resolution target phantoms showed that resolution is limited to the TFT array Nyquist frequency including detectors with pixel size of 139 microns resolution ~3.6 lp/mm) and 127 microns (resolution~3.9 lp/mm). The ability to operate at low voltages (~0.5 volt/micron) gives adequate dark currents for most applications and allows low voltage electronics designs.
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Haim Gilboa, Asaf Zuck, O. Dagan, Alex Vilensky, B. N. Breen, A. Taieb, B. Reisman, H. Hermon, George Zentai, Larry D. Partain, Robert A. Street, S. Ready, "Medical imaging with mercuric iodide direct digital radiography flat-panel x-ray detectors", Proc. SPIE 4784, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors and Applications IV, (10 January 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.450503; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.450503
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KEYWORDS
X-rays

Sensors

X-ray detectors

Image resolution

Signal attenuation

Selenium

Coating

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