26 November 2002 X-ray spectroscopy and calibrations in the 50- to 60-keV range
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Abstract
Spectrometers have been developed to record x-ray spectra in the energy range 50 eV to 60 keV. The dispersion elements are transmission crystals for energies higher than approximately 10 keV, reflection crystals for 1 keV to 20 keV, and transmission gratings for energies less than 1 keV. The two-dimensional spectral images are recorded on a CCD or CMOS sensor with a phosphor conversion screen. Silicon photodiodes are positioned in front of the 2D sensor to provide absolute x-ray flux calibrations. The diodes have 1 mm2 area and sub-nanosecond time response. The diodes, transmission gratings, and attenuation filters were absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation. In addition, the diodes were calibrated in pulsed mode using the soft x-ray (70 eV to 250 eV) pulses from individual electron bunches circulating in the synchrotron storage ring, and a self-calibration model extends the calibration to higher energy. X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectra were recorded at the OMEGA and NIKE laser facilities. A hard x-ray spectrometer is being built for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that covers the 1 keV to 20 keV range with one transmission crystal channel and four reflection crystal channels.
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John F. Seely, John F. Seely, Lawrence T. Hudson, Lawrence T. Hudson, James L. Weaver, James L. Weaver, Glenn E. Holland, Glenn E. Holland, Craig Nelson Boyer, Craig Nelson Boyer, } "X-ray spectroscopy and calibrations in the 50- to 60-keV range", Proc. SPIE 4786, Penetrating Radiation Systems and Applications IV, (26 November 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.451750; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.451750
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