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6 December 2002 Local spectral and spatial frequency moments of shallow-water sound propagation
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Underwater sound propagation is inherently nonstationary, particularly in shallow water where the ocean surface and bottom act like waveguide boundaries, giving rise to structural (or geometric) dispersion. The spectrogram has been a principal means to study the nonstationarities and dispersion characteristics of shallow-water sound propagation. In this paper, we give the low-order conditional time-frequency moments of a wave propagating in a waveguide. Comparison of these results is made to spectrograms of explosive source sound propagation in the Yellow Sea.
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Patrick J. Loughlin "Local spectral and spatial frequency moments of shallow-water sound propagation", Proc. SPIE 4791, Advanced Signal Processing Algorithms, Architectures, and Implementations XII, (6 December 2002);

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