18 December 2002 Organic electro-optics: from molecules to devices
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Employing guidance from quantum and statistical mechanics, the electro-optic activity of organic materials has been increased to values greater than 100 pm/V at telecommunication wavelengths (e.g., 130 pm/V at 1.3 microns). Electro-optic materials now afford significant advantages in terms of bandwidth and electro-optic activity over competitive inorganic materials such as lithium niobate. Organic materials have also been found to be quite processable permitting the fabrication by reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques of 3-D active waveguide structures and integration with both VLSI semiconductor electronics and silica fiber optics. Both stripline and microresonator structures have been fabricated, as have low-optical-loss coupling structures. A number of prototype devices demonstrating superior performance have been demonstrated; however, the long-term, in-field performance of such devices still remains to be evaluated. This article focuses on statistical mechanical theoretical methods that have aided the design of improved materials.
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Larry Raymond Dalton, Larry Raymond Dalton, Bruce H. Robinson, Bruce H. Robinson, Robert Nielsen, Robert Nielsen, Alex K.-Y. Jen, Alex K.-Y. Jen, William H. Steier, William H. Steier, } "Organic electro-optics: from molecules to devices", Proc. SPIE 4798, Linear and Nonlinear Optics of Organic Materials II, (18 December 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.455890; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.455890

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