24 June 2002 Nanoscale surface texturing by impact of accelerated condensed-gas nanoparticles
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Commercial apparatus has recently become available to utilize a gas-cluster ion beam (GCIB) for smoothing microelectronic and photonic surfaces to sub-nanometer residual roughness. Smoothing occurs after a high fluence to the surface. However, at very low fluence, surface features are observed that are helpful in modeling the stochastic nature of the smoothing. These low fluence features have potential for nano-scale surface texturing that may result in unique electronic and optical properties. This paper addresses the impact of individual gas clusters to yield nano-scale craters in SiO2 and nano-scale hillocks on Si. The nature of these features results from parameters of cluster species, beam acceleration, target material and residual vacuum chamber gases, as well as chemical reactions. 20 kV argon clusters impacting a smooth SiO2 film results in pits approximately 4 nm deep, approximately 10 nm diameter with a small rim of ejecta. Higher energy 24 kV Ar gas clusters incident on silicon with approximately 20 SiO2 cause hillocks approximately 4 nm high (projecting above the native oxide) and a approximately 40 nm diameter. The hillocks formed from Ar-GCIB on Si are composed of SiOx and have been found to reflect the symmetry of the underlying (100) or (111) crystallographic Si orientations.
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Lisa P. Allen, Lisa P. Allen, David B. Fenner, David B. Fenner, C. Santeufemio, C. Santeufemio, W. Brooks, W. Brooks, J. Hautala, J. Hautala, Y. Shao, Y. Shao, } "Nanoscale surface texturing by impact of accelerated condensed-gas nanoparticles", Proc. SPIE 4806, Complex Mediums III: Beyond Linear Isotropic Dielectrics, (24 June 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.472987; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.472987


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