We have demonstrated a variety of solution-phase approaches for the synthesis of dimensionally confined nanostructures of a wide range of materials. These materials include metals (Ag and Au) and semiconductors (Te, Se, and Ag2Se) with interesting properties such as high electric, thermal, and ionic conductivities, piezoelectricity, and photoconductivity. Direct and indirect routes for the solution-phase synthesis of 1-dimensional nanostructures are presented. Control over morphology, chemical purity, and crystallinity are well maintained. We show that by using solution-phase methods, it is possible to generate not only high yields of nanowires but also more complex structures such as tubes and co-axial nanocables. These nanostructures are ideal for the study of size-confinement effects on electrical and optical properties, and also as the future interconnects and active components in nanoscale electronic and electromechanical devices.