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4 November 2002 One- and two-photon induced growth of ligand-coated nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning
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Ligand-coated metallic nanoparticles are powerful new materials for nano-electronic and photonics applications. They can be readily synthesized and their stability and solubility allows them to be cast in complex composite materials or self-assembled into quasi-ordered films. We demonstrate that, in the presence of reducing dyes with a large two-photon cross-section and metal salts, it is possible to induce the growth of metal nanoparticles in composite films under optical excitation or irradiation with electrons. We demonstrate further that continuous metal structures can be obtained via laser irradiation of the composites and that, with two-photon excitation, 3D structures can be fabricated. Silver, copper, and gold microstructures have been fabricated via two-photon excitation. The composition of our polymeric precursor is described in detail. In order to achieve highly-homogenous solid-state solutions of nanoparticles dissolved in polyvinylcarbazole (PVK), we have synthesized tailor-made nanoparticles on which we have introduced a mixture of carbazoyl-terminated octylthiol and simple octylthiols.. Preliminary experiments on e-beam lithography show that thin films of nanoparticles doped with suitable dyes and metal salts are efficient precursors form metal structures.
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Francesco Stellacci, Christina A. Bauer, Timo Meyer-Friedrichsen, Wim Wenseleers, Valerie Alain, Stephen M. Kuebler, Stephanie J. K. Pond, Yadong Zhang, Seth R. Marder, and Joseph W. Perry "One- and two-photon induced growth of ligand-coated nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning", Proc. SPIE 4809, Nanoscale Optics and Applications, (4 November 2002);

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