13 February 2003 When did the Hubble sequence appear? Subaru observations of distant field and cluster galaxies
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Abstract
We conducted deep NIR and optical imaging observations in general fields as well as the fields of cluster of galaxies and candidates at z > 1. In the observed rich cluster environment, massive galaxies have been well developed by z=1.2-1.3. However, in a general field, HDF-N, we see conspicuous and sudden decrease of comoving number density of early-type galaxies above z=1. There are few galaxies as massive as present-day L* galaxies at z=2-4 in HDF-N. Their rest-frame optical light is dominated by very young stellar population and their morphology also does not show any clear sequence. Thus formation/evolution of galaxies seems to strongly depend on their density environment and in general fields massive galaxies which form present-day Hubble sequence might have been formed between 1 < z < 2 while early type galaxies in clusters formed earlier epoch.
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Toru Yamada, "When did the Hubble sequence appear? Subaru observations of distant field and cluster galaxies", Proc. SPIE 4834, Discoveries and Research Prospects from 6- to 10-Meter-Class Telescopes II, (13 February 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.457512; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.457512
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