7 March 2003 Megapixel and larger readouts and FPAs for visible and infrared astronomy
Author Affiliations +
Abstract
The desire for larger and larger format arrays for astronomical observatories -- both ground and space based -- has fueled the development of detector, readout, and hybrid Focal Plane Array (FPA) technology that has paved the way for later development of tactical and strategic arrays for military applications. Since 1994, Raytheon has produced megapixel readouts and FPAs for Infrared Astronomy. In 1999 Raytheon demonstrated a revolutionary approach to photolithography called Reticle Image Composition Lithography (RICL) that opened the door to very large format FPAs in state of the art sub-micron CMOS processes. The first readout processed using the patented RICL technique was a 4.2 megapixel readout for astronomy. We present the design and performance of several 4.2 megapixel (2048 x 2048) readout arrays for visible and infrared astronomy applications. The first of these arrays are fabricated in a workhorse 2 μm CMOS process that is optimized for low temperature operation (down to as low as 6 Kelvin). Most recently Raytheon has developed a scaleable 2,048 x 2,048 high density array for several ground based astronomical applications. This array can be manufactured in any m x n multiple of a basic 1024 (V) x 512 (H) pixel array core. The primary design is a 2 x 4 array to yield a 2,048 x 2,048 format array. This same design can be extended to at least a 4,096 x 4,096 format array -- an incredible 16.7 megapixel array! These readouts are compatible with a wide range of detector types including InSb, HgCdTe, and Si detectors. The use of hybrid technology -- even for the visible wavebands -- allows 100% optical fill factors to be achieved. The design and performance of these megapixel class detectors, readouts, and FPAs will be presented.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
David J. Gulbransen, David J. Gulbransen, Peter J. Love, Peter J. Love, Mark P. Murray, Mark P. Murray, Nancy A. Lum, Nancy A. Lum, Christopher L. Fletcher, Christopher L. Fletcher, Elizabeth Corrales, Elizabeth Corrales, Robert E. Mills, Robert E. Mills, Alan W. Hoffman, Alan W. Hoffman, Ken J. Ando, Ken J. Ando, } "Megapixel and larger readouts and FPAs for visible and infrared astronomy", Proc. SPIE 4841, Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, (7 March 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.459851; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.459851
PROCEEDINGS
12 PAGES


SHARE
RELATED CONTENT

Large staring arrays at SOFRADIR
Proceedings of SPIE (January 23 2003)
Low-noise, low-power HgCdTe/Al2O3 1024 x 1024 FPAs
Proceedings of SPIE (October 21 1996)
2.5-um PACE-I HgCdTe 1024x1024 for infrared astronomy
Proceedings of SPIE (September 14 1994)

Back to Top