7 March 2003 Optical testing of diamond machined, aspheric mirrors for ground-based, near-IR astronomy
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The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a facility-class instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.l meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8-2.5 μm) spectrometer and operates at ~80 K. The 6061-T651 aluminum bench and mirrors constitute an athermal design. The instrument produces simultaneous spectra at low- to mid-resolving power (R = λ/Δλ = 300-3000) of ~100 objects in its 2.8×2.0 arcmin field. We describe ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the IRMOS mirrors across a broad range in spatial frequency (figure error, mid-frequency error, and microroughness). The mirrors include three rotationally symmetric, off-axis conic sections, one off-axis biconic, and several flat fold mirrors. The symmetric mirrors include convex and concave prolate and oblate ellipsoids. They range in aperture from 94×86 mm to 286×269 mm and in f-number from 0.9 to 2.4. The biconic mirror is concave and has a 94×76 mm aperture, Rx=377 mm, kx=0.0778, Ry=407 mm, and ky=0.1265 and is decentered by -2 mm in X and 227 mm in Y. All of the mirrors have an aspect ratio of approximately 6:1. The surface error fabrication tolerances are < 10 nm RMS microroughness, best effort for mid-frequency error, and < 63.3 nm RMS figure error. Ambient temperature (~293 K) testing is performed for each of the three surface error regimes, and figure testing is also performed at ~80 K. Operation of the ADE PhaseShift MicroXAM white light interferometer (micro-roughness) and the Bauer Model 200 profilometer (mid-frequency error) is described. Both the sag and conic values of the aspheric mirrors make these tests challenging. Figure testing is performed using a Zygo GPI interferometer, custom computer generated holograms (CGH), and optomechanical alignment fiducials. Cryogenic CGH null testing is discussed in detail. We discuss complications such as the change in prescription with temperature and thermal gradients. Correction for the effect of the dewar window is also covered. We discuss the error budget for the optical test and alignment procedure. Data reduction is accomplished using commercial optical design and data analysis software packages. Results from CGH testing at cryogenic temperatures are encouraging thus far.
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John Chambers, Ronald G. Mink, Raymond G. Ohl, Joseph A. Connelly, John Eric Mentzell, Steven M. Arnold, Matthew A. Greenhouse, Robert S. Winsor, and John W. MacKenty "Optical testing of diamond machined, aspheric mirrors for ground-based, near-IR astronomy", Proc. SPIE 4841, Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, (7 March 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.458966; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.458966

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