11 March 2003 Development of supermirror hard x-ray telescope and the results of first observation flight of InFOCuS flight observation
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Abstract
The development of hard X-ray focusing optics is widely recognized as one of key technologies for future X-ray observatory missions such as NeXT(Japan), Constellation-X(US) and possibly XEUS(Europe). We have developed hard X-ray telescope employing depth-graded multilayers, so-called supermirrors. Its benefit is to reflect hard X-rays by Bragg reflection at incidence angles larger than the critical angle of total external reflection. We are now continuously fabricating platinum-carbon(Pt/C) supermirror reflectors for hard X-ray observations. In this paper we focus on our development of the hard X-ray telescope for the first balloon flight observation (InFOCuS) and its results. InFOCuS is an international balloon-borne hard X-ray observation experiment initiated by NASA/GSFC. InFOCuS hard X-ray telescope have been jointly developed by Nagoya University and GSFC. The telescope is conical approximation of Wolter-I optics with 8m focal length and 40cm diameter. It consists of 255 nested ultra-thin reflector pairs with incidence angles of 0.10 to 0.36deg. Reflectors are coated with Pt/C supermirrors with periodic length of 2.9 to 10nm and bi-layer number of 25 to 60, depending on incidence angles. The effective area and imaging quality are expected as 100 cm2 at 30 keV and 2 arcmin in half power diameter, respectively. The InFOCuS experiment was launched on July 5, 2001, from National Scientific Balloon Facility in Texas, USA. We successfully observed Cyg X-1, chosen for a calibration target, in 20-40keV energy band. We are planning to carry out next flight for scientific observations as soon as additional telescopes, detectors, and upgraded gondola system are implemented.
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Yasushi Ogasaka, Keisuke Tamura, Takashi Okajima, Yuzuru Tawara, Koujun Yamashita, Akihiro Furuzawa, Kazutoshi Haga, Satoshi Ichimaru, Seiji Takahashi, Shinichi Fukuda, Hideo Kito, Arifumi Goto, Seima Kato, Hiroyuki Satake, Ken'ichi Nomoto, Noriyuki Hamada, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Jack Tueller, Yang Soong, Kai-Wing Chan, Scott M. Owens, Fred Berendse, Hans Krimm, Wayne Baumgartner, Scott D. Barthelmy, Hideyo Kunieda, Kazutami Misaki, Ryo Shibata, Hideyuki Mori, Kei Itoh, Yoshiharu Namba, "Development of supermirror hard x-ray telescope and the results of first observation flight of InFOCuS flight observation", Proc. SPIE 4851, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, (11 March 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.461531; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.461531
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KEYWORDS
X-ray telescopes

Hard x-rays

Reflectors

Reflectivity

X-rays

Sensors

Space telescopes

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