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11 March 2003 Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard x-ray mirrors
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The NASA's Constellation X-Ray Mission consists of a Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) based on large collecting area optics plus a focusing Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) operating between 8 and 70 keV and possibly at even higher energy. The Con-X HXT will have a focal length of 10 m and graze angles are small (0.25 - 0.1 deg). The substrates will be coated with multilayers to enhance the reflectivity but single heavy element coatings are an alternative for the small diameter substrates of the set. Twelve copies of the HXT are distributed evenly among the four Con-X spacecrafts. With multiple telescopes it is appropriate to consider electroforming, the replication process used successfully by Beppo-SAX, JET-X/SWIFT, and XMM-Newton, to produce their substrates. The important feature of the technique is that for mirrors with aperture diameters less than 40 cm also with thin substrates it is possible to achieve good angular resolution, which is important for obtaining high signal-to-noise ratios in deep observations and imaging extended sources. We review the main results of our development study devoted to proving the feasibility of the process for the Con-X/HXT, with particular stress on demonstrating, not only by theoretical considerations but also presenting an important experimental proof, that we can satisfy the severe mass constraints of the mission still maintaining good imaging capabilities.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Giovanni Pareschi, Oberto Citterio, Mauro Ghigo, Francesco Mazzoleni, Paul Gorenstein, Suzanne E. Romaine, and Giancarlo Parodi "Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard x-ray mirrors", Proc. SPIE 4851, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, (11 March 2003);

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