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27 December 2002 Analytical Approach to X-Phenomenon in Alternating Phase-Shifting Masks
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Abstract
An analytical approach to X-phenomenon in alternating phase-shifting masks is given in the framework of the thin-mask approximation. We present an analytical expression for the focus-dependent intensity imbalance between 0° and 180° phase regions when there exists relative phase error. It is shown that X-phenomenon results from the interference between 0th diffracted order, which originates from the phase error and has an in- or out-of-phase component with respect to the ±1st diffracted orders depending on the defocus directions, and the ±1st diffracted orders. Dependences of the intensity imbalance on the phase error and the duty ratio of the structure are given.
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Jong Rak Park, Soon Ho Kim, Hojune Lee, Il-Yong Jang, Yo-Han Choi, Seung-Hune Yang, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yong-Hoon Kim, Sung-Woon Choi, Hee-Sun Yoon, and Jung-Min Sohn "Analytical Approach to X-Phenomenon in Alternating Phase-Shifting Masks", Proc. SPIE 4889, 22nd Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, (27 December 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.468092; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.468092
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