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8 May 2003 Backscattering enhancement from very rough surfaces based on integral equation model
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The problem of electromagnetic wave scattering from randomly rough surfaces has been studied using both low- and high-frequency approximations. It has been recognized that scattering at small incident angles seemed to follow the high-frequency solution based on the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), and at large incident angles the small perturbation method (SPM) appears to explain the measurements better. However, for very rough surfaces with large rms height and rms slopes around unity or more, both of them failed to give satisfactory results. In this paper the integral equation model (IEM) is introduced to solve the electromagnetic scattering from very rough surfaces. It can be shown that the IEM not only can describe the single scattering but can interpret the multiple scattering well. In addition, the upward and downward multiple scattered wave are identified when taking multiple scattering into consideration, therefore it is possible to assign the correct shadowing effect to multiple scattering calculation. By numerical calculation the phenomenon of backscattering enhancement can be observed and the results are in good agreement with experimental data.
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ZhenSen Wu and Yandong Zhang "Backscattering enhancement from very rough surfaces based on integral equation model", Proc. SPIE 4892, Ocean Remote Sensing and Applications, (8 May 2003);

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