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21 March 2003 Sum frequency generation of sodium D2 resonance line for the lidar application of mesopause temperature measurements
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Abstract
Sum frequency generation of sodium D2 resonance radiation (589 nm) based on injection seeded Nd:YAG lasers was applied to a sodium lidar transmitter for temperature measurements of the mesopause region (80-105km). The output energy was 40 mJ / pulse at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and a temporal width of 28 nsec. The laser wavelength at 589 nm (~0.04 pm FWHM) was finely tuned with an accuracy of 0.1pm by seeders. The lidar installed at Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica, measured temperature profiles between March and September during 2000 and 2001. Monthly averaged temperature profiles in the mesopause region in wintertime (June, July and August) are nearly 20 K lower than those in the northern hemisphere sites. The measured winter mesopause altitudes (~99 km) are in good agreement with those measured in the northern winter hemisphere. The mesopause temperatures (~175 K) in winter months however are about 20 K lower than those observed from a northern hemisphere conjugate site, Andoya (69°N). The lower winter mesopause temperatures measured at Syowa station, which are consistent with southern hemisphere mesopause temperatures measured by a shipborne lidar, suggest the existence of a hemispheric difference. Possible causes for this difference are discussed.
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Takuya D. Kawahara, Tsukasa Kitahara, Fumitoshi Kobayashi, Joji Yamashita, Yasunori Saito, and Akio Nomura "Sum frequency generation of sodium D2 resonance line for the lidar application of mesopause temperature measurements", Proc. SPIE 4893, Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, (21 March 2003); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.466175
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