The Spectral Identification Tree (SIT) based on diagnostic absorption spectra of minerals was designed and developed to extract minerals directly. The spectral absorption features of different ions or bonds such as CO32+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Al-Oh and Mg-Oh and so on, of some minerals were summarized. Some spectral identification trees (SIT) and decision rules from various ions to minerals were established using IF-THEN rules which based on some spectral absorption features. Various spectral absorption features which were combine by logistic relationship were used to extract and discriminate different levels’ minerals (e.g. mineral group and mineral) in SIT technique. Information of ions, such as CO32+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Al-OH and Mg-OH, and of some minerals, such as alunite, montmorillonite, muscovite, halloysite, smect-kaolinite and illite were identified and extracted effectively by SIT technique using AVIRIS data at Cuprite, Nevada of USA, which was a test area.