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17 September 2002 Design of a phosphate glass waveguide laser with output power at 1535 nm
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The availability of integrated optical sources in glass is expected greatly to enhance optical signal processign in glass substrates. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of waveguide lasers in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped phosphate glass substrates. Waveguides were fabricated in a commercially avilable phosphate glass. The glass was codoped with 1.65wtpercent Er2O3 and 20wt percent Yb2O5. Waveguides were formed by K+-Na+ exchange through channel apertures etched in 150nm thick AL mask layer. Yb3+ is commonly used as a sensitizer in Er3+ lasers because it has a much larger absorption cross section near 980nm than Er3+, and it efficiently transfers its excited state eneryg to the upper level of the Er3+ 1535nm transition. The parameters that affect lasing characteristics of waveguide lasers are discussed in the light of equations for the lasing threshold and slope efficiency. Design parameters for low-threshold waveguide lasers with high slope efficiencies are described, and methods are given for substrates, waveguides and lasers cavities.
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Xiao-xia Zhang, Wei Pan, and Yongzhi Liu "Design of a phosphate glass waveguide laser with output power at 1535 nm", Proc. SPIE 4918, Materials, Devices, and Systems for Display and Lighting, (17 September 2002);

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