12 September 2003 Comparison of scaffold-enhanced albumin and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesives for joining of tissue in a porcine model
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An ex vivo study was conducted to compare the tensile strength of tissue samples repaired using three different techniques: (i) application of a scaffold-enhanced light-activated albumin protein solder, (ii) application of a scaffold-enhanced n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive, and (iii) repair via conventional suture technique. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. Group I porous scaffolds were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. Group II scaffolds were doped with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, and required no light-activation. No stay sutures were required for Group I or II experiments. Group III repairs were performed using a single 4-0 suture. Thirteen organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student’s T-test. Using the protein solder of Group I, repairs formed on the ureter were most successful followed by small intestine, sciatic nerve, spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle, skin and ventricle. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. Overall, the tensile strength of Group III repairs performed via suture techniques were equivalent in magnitude to that of Group I repairs, however, a larger variance was observed in the suture repair group. Group II repairs utilizing the cyanoacrylate-doped scaffold all performed extremely well. Bonds formed using the Group II adhesive were approximately 30% stronger than Group I and III organ repairs and approximately 20% stronger than Group I and III vascular repairs. Application of the polymer scaffold assists in tissue alignment and reduces problems associated with adhesive runaway from the repair site. Scaffold-enhanced adhesives could possibly be used as a simple and effective method to join tissue together quickly and effectively in an emergency situation, or as a substitute to mechanical sutures or staples in many clinical applications.
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Karen M. McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M. McNally-Heintzelman, Jill N. Riley, Jill N. Riley, Douglas L. Heintzelman, Douglas L. Heintzelman, "Comparison of scaffold-enhanced albumin and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesives for joining of tissue in a porcine model", Proc. SPIE 4949, Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XIII, (12 September 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.500109; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.500109

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