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12 September 2003 Monitoring of electrical peoperties during cartilage reshaping
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A new non-thermal method of altering the shape of cartilage to create mechanically stable new morphologies was developed using low DC voltage electric fields (electroforming). In cartilage electroforming, voltage is applied to the surfaces of cartilage specimens held in mechanical deformation by a jig made of two large surface area electrodes for 2-5 minutes. Following removal of the specimen from the jig, permanent shape change is observed. Electric resistance and mechanical stress were monitoring during electroforming. Strong correlation between resistance and stress was observed suggesting that the mechanism of stress relaxation is electrically mediated and may provide a mean to monitor electroforming.
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Dmitry E. Protsenko, Kevin Ho, and Brian J. F. Wong M.D. "Monitoring of electrical peoperties during cartilage reshaping", Proc. SPIE 4949, Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XIII, (12 September 2003);

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