12 September 2003 Near-infrared laser welding of aortic and skin tissues and microscopic investigation of welding efficacy
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Ex vivo specimens of human and porcine aorta and skin were welded using either Cr4+:YAG or Erbium fiber lasers tuned to the water absorption band at 1440-1460 nm. Welding was performed without the use of protein solders or glues. Welding efficacy was monitored by measuring the tensile strength of the welded tissue and the extent of collateral tissue damage. Full thickness tissue bonding with no collateral damage was observed with porcine aorta samples. The optimum tensile strength for porcine and human aorta was 1.33 ± 0.15 kg/cm2 and 1.13 ± 0.27 kg/cm2 respectively for welding at 1460 nm, while that for porcine and human skin was 0.94 ± 0.15 kg/cm2 and 1.05 ± 0.19 kg/cm2 respectively achieved with welding at 1455 nm. The weld strength as a function of laser wavelength demonstrated a correlation with the absorption spectrum of native water suggests that absorption of light by water in the tissue plays a significant role in laser tissue welding.
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Tapan K. Gayen, Tapan K. Gayen, Alvin Katz, Alvin Katz, Howard E. Savage, Howard E. Savage, John Lee, John Lee, M. Paul, M. Paul, Rabindra K. Halder, Rabindra K. Halder, Steven A. McCormick, Steven A. McCormick, Robert R. Alfano, Robert R. Alfano, } "Near-infrared laser welding of aortic and skin tissues and microscopic investigation of welding efficacy", Proc. SPIE 4949, Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XIII, (12 September 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.476392; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.476392

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