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27 August 2003 Material ejection in free-running Er:YAG laser ablation of water, liver, and skin
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Proceedings Volume 4961, Laser-Tissue Interaction XIV; (2003)
Event: Biomedical Optics, 2003, San Jose, CA, United States
We investigated the mechanisms of material ejection in IR laser tissue ablation using free-running Er:YAG laser pulses. We found that for water and soft tissues such as liver the primary mechanism for material ejection is a phase explosion within the target material. The recoil induced by the primary material ejection causes a secondary material expulsion that largely increases the ablation efficiency. For mechanically stronger tissues such as skin, the material ejection is driven by confined boiling, and recoil-induced expulsion plays no role. The high efficiency of recoil-induced material expulsion is associated with a loss in ablation precision and an increase of mechanical side effects that needs to be considered for an appropriate choice of laser parameters.
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Alfred Vogel, Bram Kersten, and Ingo Apitz "Material ejection in free-running Er:YAG laser ablation of water, liver, and skin", Proc. SPIE 4961, Laser-Tissue Interaction XIV, (27 August 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.477706;

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