10 July 2003 Multiphoton imaging: a view to understanding sulfur mustard lesions
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It is well known that topical exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) produces persistent, incapacitating blisters of the skin. However, the primary lesions effecting epidermal-dermal separation and disabling of mechanisms for cutaneous repair remain uncertain. Immunofluorescent staining plus multiphoton imaging of human epidermal tissues and keratinocytes exposed to SM (400 μM x 5 min)have revealed that SM disrupts adhesion-complex molecules which are also disrupted by epidermolysis bullosa-type blistering diseases of the skin. Images of keratin-14 showed early, progressive, postexposure collapse of the K5/K14 cytoskeleton that resulted in ventral displacement of the nuclei beneath its collapsing filaments. This effectively corrupted the dynamic filament assemblies that link basal-cell nuclei to the extracellular matrix via α6β4-integrin and laminin-5. At 1 h postexposure, there was disruption in the surface organization of α6β4 integrins, associated displacement of laminin-5 anchoring sites and a concomitant loss of functional asymmetry. Accordingly, our multiphoton images are providing compelling evidence that SM induces prevesicating lesions that disrupt the receptor-ligand organization and cytoskeletal systems required for maintaining dermal-epidermal attachment, signal transduction, and polarized mobility.
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Robert J. S. Werrlein, Robert J. S. Werrlein, Janna S. Madren-Whalley, Janna S. Madren-Whalley, } "Multiphoton imaging: a view to understanding sulfur mustard lesions", Proc. SPIE 4963, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences III, (10 July 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.478035; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478035

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