15 January 2003 Modeling of secondary radiation damage in LIGA PMMA resist exposure
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Proceedings Volume 4979, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology VIII; (2003) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478237
Event: Micromachining and Microfabrication, 2003, San Jose, CA, United States
Secondary radiation during LIGA PMMA resist exposure adversely affects feature definition, sidewall taper and overall sidewall offset. Additionally, it can degrade the resist adjacent to the substrate, leading to the loss of free-standing features through undercutting during resist development or through mechanical failure of the degraded material. The source of this radiation includes photoelectrons, Auger electrons, fluorescence photons, etc. Sandia’s Integrated Tiger Series (ITS), a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code, was used to compute dose profiles within 1 to 2 microns of the absorber edge and near the interface of the resist with a metallized substrate. The difficulty of sub-micron resolution requirement was overcome by solving a few local problems having carefully designed micron-scale geometries. The results indicate a 2-μm dose transition region near the absorber edge resulting from PMMA’s photoelectrons. This region leads to sidewall offset and to tapered sidewalls following resist development. The results also show a dose boundary layer of around 1 μm near the substrate interface due to electrons emitted from the substrate metallization layer. The maximum dose at the resist bottom under the absorber can be very high and can lead to feature loss during development. This model was also used to investigate those resist doses resulting from multi-layer substrate.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Aili Ting, Aili Ting, "Modeling of secondary radiation damage in LIGA PMMA resist exposure", Proc. SPIE 4979, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology VIII, (15 January 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.478237; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.478237

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