16 January 2003 Microshutter arrays for near-infrared applications on the James Webb Space Telescope
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Abstract
Magnetically actuated MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use in a multi-object spectrometer on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. The JWST environment requires cryogenic operation at 45K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated out of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. Arrays consist of close-packed shutters made on silicon nitride (nitride) membranes with a pixel size of 100 × 100 m. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90°, with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Shutters operated this way have survived fatigue life test. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. The processing includes a multi-layer metal deposition, patterning of shutter electrodes and magnetic pads, reactive ion etching (RIE) of the front side to form shutters in a nitride film, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, and a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch, down to the nitride shutter layer, to form support frames and relieve shutters from the silicon substrate. An additional metal deposition and patterning has recently been developed to form electrodes on the vertical walls of the frame. Shutters are actuated using a magnetic force, and latched electrostatically. One-dimensional addressing has been demonstrated.
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Mary J. Li, Mary J. Li, Alex Bier, Alex Bier, Rainer K. Fettig, Rainer K. Fettig, David E. Franz, David E. Franz, R. Hu, R. Hu, T. King, T. King, Alexander S. Kutyrev, Alexander S. Kutyrev, Bernard A. Lynch, Bernard A. Lynch, Samuel Harvey Moseley, Samuel Harvey Moseley, David Brent Mott, David Brent Mott, David A. Rapchun, David A. Rapchun, Robert F. Silverberg, Robert F. Silverberg, Wayne Smith, Wayne Smith, L. Wang, L. Wang, Yun Zheng, Yun Zheng, C. Zinke, C. Zinke, } "Microshutter arrays for near-infrared applications on the James Webb Space Telescope", Proc. SPIE 4981, MEMS Components and Applications for Industry, Automobiles, Aerospace, and Communication II, (16 January 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.476285; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.476285
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