17 June 2003 Characterization of failure mechanisms for oxide VCSELs
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Proceedings Volume 4994, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VII; (2003) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.482637
Event: Integrated Optoelectronics Devices, 2003, San Jose, CA, United States
Abstract
Oxide VCSELs are the emitter of choice for high-speed optical communication applications. A low divergence circular beam, wafer-level testing and the capability to create dense two-dimensional arrays provide the VCSEL with unique advantages over edge emitting lasers, such that VSCELs have become a significant part of the optical communication market. An equally important metric for VCSELs is field reliability since significant failure rates are unacceptable for implementation of reliable networks. In order to better understand potential failure paths of VCSELs during field use, a variety of failures have been intentionally created on oxide VCSELs made from AlGaAs / GaAs materials operating at 850nm. Failures were created with epitaxial defects, scratches, surface contamination, thermal shock , ESD and elevated temperature and humidity (85C/85% humidity). We will present the results of these intentional failures, assess high-probability failure paths and compare and contrast the various failure mechanisms.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Scott A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, Joachim J. Krueger, Yong Luo, Ningxia Tan, Tim Osentowski, Suning Xie, Myrna S. Mayonte, Robert W. Herrick, Qing Deng, Mike Heidecker, David Eastley, Mark R. Keever, Christophe P. Kocot, "Characterization of failure mechanisms for oxide VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 4994, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VII, (17 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.482637; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.482637
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