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17 June 2003 Nanoscale materials characterization of degradation in VCSELs
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Proceedings Volume 4994, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VII; (2003) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.482858
Event: Integrated Optoelectronics Devices, 2003, San Jose, CA, United States
Abstract
Significant advancements have been made in the characterization and understanding of the degradation behavior of the III-V semiconductor materials employed in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diodes. Briefly, for the first time a technique has been developed whereby it is possible to view the entire active region of a solid state laser in a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) using a novel Focussed Ion Beam (FIB) prepared plan-view sample geometry. This technique, in conjunction with TEM cross-section imaging has enabled a three-dimensional characterization of several of the degradation mechanisms that lead to laser failure. It is found that there may occur an initial drop in laser power output due to the development of cracks in the upper mirror layers. In later stages of degradation, dislocations are punched out at stress-concentrating sites (e.g. oxide aperture tips) and these dislocations can then extend over the active region in a manner consistent with recombination enhanced dislocation motion. Alternatively, complex three-dimensional dislocation arrays which exhibited dendritic-like growth and which cover the entire active region can nucleate on a single defect.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
David T. Mathes, Robert Hull, Kent D. Choquette, Kent M. Geib, Andrew A. Allerman, James K. Guenter, Bobby Hawkins, and Robert A. Hawthorne "Nanoscale materials characterization of degradation in VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 4994, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VII, (17 June 2003); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.482858
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