Wavefront technology promises to change the way vision care will be conducted. Wavefront-sensing optometers provide instant, accurate measurement of the total wave aberration of the eye, and that one measurement contains all the information needed for refractive vision diagnosis and refractive vision correction. Wavefront optometers are now being used to create individualized laser vision correction based, not on the coventional sphero-cylindrical correction, but rather on the total wavefront errors in patients' eyes. Comprehensive vision diagnosis based on the wave aberration and the image quality derived from it is far different from the conventional test of visual acuity. Wavefront technology has made it possible to image microscopic features as small as the photoreceptors and to improve resolution of retinal imaging techniques for early diagnosis of retinal diseases. This article is a review covering the hsitory and progress being made in the development of the wavefront technologies.