9 June 2003 Visualizing multiattribute Web transactions using a freeze technique
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Web transactions are multidimensional and have a number of attributes: client, URL, response times, and numbers of messages. One of the key questions is how to simultaneously lay out in a graph the multiple relationships, such as the relationships between the web client response times and URLs in a web access application. In this paper, we describe a freeze technique to enhance a physics-based visualization system for web transactions. The idea is to freeze one set of objects before laying out the next set of objects during the construction of the graph. As a result, we substantially reduce the force computation time. This technique consists of three steps: automated classification, a freeze operation, and a graph layout. These three steps are iterated until the final graph is generated. This iterated-freeze technique has been prototyped in several e-service applications at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. It has been used to visually analyze large volumes of service and sales transactions at online web sites.
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Ming C. Hao, Ming C. Hao, Daniel Cotting, Daniel Cotting, Umeshwar Dayal, Umeshwar Dayal, Vijay Machiraju, Vijay Machiraju, Pankaj Garg, Pankaj Garg, "Visualizing multiattribute Web transactions using a freeze technique", Proc. SPIE 5009, Visualization and Data Analysis 2003, (9 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.474031; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.474031

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