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2 November 1984 Effective Antireflection Coatings Of Transparent Polymeric Materials By Gas-Phase Surface Fluorination
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There is a dramatic need in solar energy collection systems for lightweight, inexpensive polymeric materials that exhibit improved performance and durability. One approach to altering the properties of polymeric materials, surface fluorination, is appealing because of its potential for low cost. The literature indicates that such properties as permeability, wettability, bondability, thermal stability, weatherability, and optical transmittance can be improved by treating the surface with gaseous fluorine. A gas phase fluorination reactor system (GPFRS) was designed, built, and used. The initial emphasis was on improving optical transmittance by having an effective antireflection coating form on the surface of a wide variety of commercially available transparent polymeric films. These included such materials as polypropylene, acrylic, polyacrylonitrile, highly cross-linked polyethylene, polyester, polycarbonate and polymethylpentene. Two techniques were used to quantify the effect of exposing the surface of the polymers to gaseous fluorine. Transparent films were characterized before and after fluorine exposure by specular transmittance measurements. Surface analysis of selected treated and untreated samples was accomplished by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and depth profiling. Surface analysis confirmed the deposit of fluorine at the surface and into the bulk of all specimens examined after treatment in the GPFRS. Optical measurements revealed substantial improvement in specular transmittance following surface fluorination of almost all materials considered. Increases in solar weighted specular transmittance as high as 4.6% were measured.
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Gary Jorgensen and Paul Schissel "Effective Antireflection Coatings Of Transparent Polymeric Materials By Gas-Phase Surface Fluorination", Proc. SPIE 0502, Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion III, (2 November 1984);

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