20 June 2003 Digital image steganography using stochastic modulation
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In this paper, we present a new steganographic paradigm for digital images in raster formats. Message bits are embedded in the cover image by adding a weak noise signal with a specified but arbitrary probabilistic distribution. This embedding mechanism provides the user with the flexibility to mask the embedding distortion as noise generated by a particular image acquisition device. This type of embedding will lead to more secure schemes because now the attacker must distinguish statistical anomalies that might be created by the embedding process from those introduced during the image acquisition itself. Unlike previously proposed schemes, this new approach, that we call stochastic modulation, achieves oblivious data transfer without using noise extraction algorithms or error correction. This leads to higher capacity (up to 0.8 bits per pixel) and a convenient and simple implementation with low embedding and extraction complexity. But most importantly, because the embedding noise can have arbitrary properties that approximate a given device noise, the new method offers better security than existing methods. At the end of this paper, we extend stochastic modulation to a content-dependent device noise and we also discuss possible attacks on this scheme based on the most recent advances in steganalysis.
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Jessica Fridrich, Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan, Miroslav Goljan, } "Digital image steganography using stochastic modulation", Proc. SPIE 5020, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, (20 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.479739; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.479739


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