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20 June 2003 Evaluation of watermarking low-bit-rate MPEG-4 bit streams
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Abstract
A novel watermarking algorithm for watermarking low bit-rate MPEG-4 compressed video is developed and evaluated in this paper. Spatial spread spectrum is used to invisibly embed the watermark into the host video. A master synchronization template is also used to combat geometrical distortion such as cropping, scaling, and rotation. The same master synchronization template is used for watermarking all video objects (VOP) in the bit-stream, but each object can be watermarked with a unique payload. A gain control algorithm is used to adjust the local gain of the watermark, in order to maximize watermark robustness and minimize the impact on the quality of the video. A spatial and temporal drift compensator is used to eliminate watermark self-interference and the drift in quality due to AC/DC prediction in I-VOPs and motion compensation in P- and B-VOPs, respectively. Finally, a bit-rate controller is used to maintain the data-rate at an acceptable level after embedding the watermark. The developed watermarking algorithm is tested using several bit-streams at bit-rates ranging from 128-750 Kbit/s. The visibility and the robustness of the watermark after decompression, rotation, scaling, sharpening, noise reduction, and trans-coding are evaluated.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Adnan M. Alattar, Mehmet U. Celik, and Eugene T. Lin "Evaluation of watermarking low-bit-rate MPEG-4 bit streams", Proc. SPIE 5020, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, (20 June 2003); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.477306
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