20 June 2003 Higher-order statistical steganalysis of palette images
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In this paper, we describe a new higher-order steganalytic method called Pairs Analysis for detection of secret messages embedded in digital images. Although the approach is in principle applicable to many different steganographic methods as well as image formats, it is ideally suited to 8-bit images, such as GIF images, where message bits are embedded in LSBs of indices to an ordered palette. The EzStego algorithm with random message spread and optimized palette order is used as an embedding archetype on which we demonstrate Pairs Analysis and compare its performance with the chi-square attacks and our previously proposed RS steganalysis. Pairs Analysis enables more reliable and accurate message detection than previous methods. The method was tested on databases of GIF images of natural scenes, cartoons, and computer-generated images. The experiments indicate that the relative steganographic capacity of the EzStego algorithm with random message spread is less than 10% of the total image capacity (0.1 bits per pixel).
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Jessica Fridrich, Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan, Miroslav Goljan, David Soukal, David Soukal, } "Higher-order statistical steganalysis of palette images", Proc. SPIE 5020, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, (20 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.473140; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.473140

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