20 June 2003 Robust audio watermark method using sinusoid patterns based on pseudo-random sequences
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In recent years, the spread spectrum watermarking technology has become the most promising technique that not only widely used for still image and video watermarking, but also used for audio watermarking. However, some technique problems such as requiring psycho-acoustic shaping used for reducing audible noise have greatly limited the utility of spread spectrum watermarking technology in audio watermarking. In this paper, we propose a novel audio watermarking method using spread spectrum watermarking technology by which we can embed watermark audio signals inaudibly with a robust to a wide range of unintended and intended attacks. In proposed method, the watermark is represented by sinusoidal patterns consisting of sinusoids with the phase-modulated by the elements of pseudo-random sequence. We theoretically and experimentally confirmed that the sinusoidal patterns based on pseudo-random sequences keep the same correlation property of pseudo-random sequences and have the characteristics of high robustness with less noise, being easy to manipulate, and without requirement of psycho-acoustic shaping. The watermark detection is done by blind detection and the effectiveness of proposed method have been certificated by the test of STEP2001.
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Zheng Liu, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Shusaku Sawato, Akira Inoue, "Robust audio watermark method using sinusoid patterns based on pseudo-random sequences", Proc. SPIE 5020, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, (20 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.473163; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.473163

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