To study the relationship between transpulomnary pressure (Ptp), intravascular pressure (Pv), and the pulmonary arterial tree structure, morphometric measurements of pulmonary arterial trees were made in intact lungs from Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cone beam micro-CT and techniques we developed for imaging small animal lungs, volumetric CT data were acquired for Ptp from 0 - 12 mmHg and Pv from 5 - 30 mmHg. The diameter, D (measured range approximately 0.08-2.0 mm), vs. pressure, P, relation can be described by D(P) = D(0)(1+ α P), where α is a distensibility coefficient. Unlike studies performed in larger animals, where changes in either Ptp or Pv had nearly identical effect on vessel distensibility, we found that there is only a small dependence of arterial diameter on Ptp in the rat. For example, using the above relation where P=Ptp and Pv is held constant at 12mmHg, alpha = 0.55±0.42(SE) %/mmHg, compared with when P=Pv and Ptp is held at 12mmHg, alpha = 2.59±0.17(SE) %/mmHg.