15 May 2003 Marker orientation in fiducial registration
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Fiducial markers are often employed in image-guided surgical procedures to provide positional information based on pre-operative images. In the standard technique, centroids of three or more markers are localized in both image space and physical space. The localized positions are used in a closed-form algorithm to determine the three-dimensional rigid-body transformation that will register the two spaces in the least-squares sense. In this work we present (1) a method for determining the orientation of the axis of symmetry of a cylindrical marker in a tomographic image and (2) an extension to the standard approach to rigid-body registration that utilizes the orientation of marker axes as an adjunct to the positions of their centroids. The extension is a closed-form, least-squares solution. Unlike the standard approach, the extension is capable of three-dimensional registration with only two markers. We evaluate the accuracy of the former method by means of CT and MR images of markers attached to a phantom and the accuracy of the latter method by means of computer simulations.
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Xiaofeng Liu, Xiaofeng Liu, Hakan Cevikalp, Hakan Cevikalp, J. Michael Fitzpatrick, J. Michael Fitzpatrick, } "Marker orientation in fiducial registration", Proc. SPIE 5032, Medical Imaging 2003: Image Processing, (15 May 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.480860; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.480860

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