19 May 2003 Lossless watermarking scheme for enhancing security of medical data in PACS
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Abstract
We propose a lossless watermarking scheme, in a sense that the original image can be exactly recovered from the watermarked one, with the purpose of verifying the integrity and authenticity of medical images in PACS. Our embedding method includes imposing invertible modulations that induce low distortion level, as well as losslessly compressing the status of the original image and carrying such information in the watermarked image. Digital signature of the whole image is embedded for verifying the integrity of the image. An identifier also presented in electronic patient record (EPR) is embedded for verifying the authenticity by simultaneously processing of the watermarked image and the EPR. Combining with fingerprint system, patient’s fingerprint information is further embedded into several image slices and then extracted for verifying the authenticity. No visual quality degradation is detected in the watermarked image.
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Xiaotao Guo, Xiaotao Guo, Tian-ge Zhuang, Tian-ge Zhuang, "Lossless watermarking scheme for enhancing security of medical data in PACS", Proc. SPIE 5033, Medical Imaging 2003: PACS and Integrated Medical Information Systems: Design and Evaluation, (19 May 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.480450; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.480450
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