16 June 2003 Design strategies for future lithography technologies (or: OPC will never die)
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Abstract
Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RETs) have extended the life of optical lithography well into the regimes of k1=0.3. Although there are a number of RTEs widely in use now, all involve some degree of optical and process correction (OPC). This puts additional strain on the data handling and management capabilities for process calibration and mask preparation. Alternative lithogrpahic technologies, such as Extreme UV (EUV), electron projection lithography (EPL), direct-write maskless lithography (MLL), and even nanoimprint techniques have been proposed and are under rapid development. All these alternatives create patterns usinga wavelength (or the dimension of the writing tool itself) smaller than the desired feature. Since these should confortably increase k1 back to the values enjoyed many years ago, it is generally assumed that the issues associated with OPC and the data management for RETs will go away. This is not true. Although these will no longer have "optical proximity" effects to compensate, each of these processes introduces its own signature of distortions, which in turn will require compensation and the associated data management. In this paper, we will inventory the state of development for each of these technologies, and outline the expected compensations and requirements palced on data management that are associated with the adoption of the technology. These effects include electron proximity effects and pattern stitching for EPL, Flare induced proximity effects for EUV, gray scale mapping for various maskless techniques, and even local process biasing for various nanoimprint approaches.
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Franklin M. Schellenberg, "Design strategies for future lithography technologies (or: OPC will never die)", Proc. SPIE 5037, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, (16 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.484931; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.484931
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