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16 June 2003 EUV mask stress mapping by an experimental and hybrid finite element technique
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Image fidelity is one of the fundamental requirements in lithography and it is becoming more important as feature sizes shrink below 90 nm. Image distortion depends on the mask deformation caused by the intrinsic stress in the film-substrate system. To develop an understanding of stress generation and to control film quality, measuring film stress is essential. In recent years, research laboratories and industry have increasingly adopted indirect methods for determining film stress. All of these methods are based on the measurement of substrate deformation, and the film stress is calculated from the substrate curvature by the local application of Stoney’s equation. When the two principal stresses at each point in the film plane are not equal to each other and their distribution is not uniform, the local application of Stoney’s equation is invalid. Even though the accuracy of the measurement may be high, the stress determined may not be. An alternative technique based on numerical analysis has been developed. The limitations of using Stoney’s equation and the new stress measurement technique are discussed in this paper.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Zhaohua Feng, Edward G. Lovell, Roxann L. Engelstad, Andrew R. Mikkelson, Phillip L. Reu, Jaewoong Sohn, Kenneth L. Blaedel, and Andre A. Claudet "EUV mask stress mapping by an experimental and hybrid finite element technique", Proc. SPIE 5037, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, (16 June 2003);

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