16 June 2003 Rates and mechanisms of optic contamination in the EUV engineering test stand
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Proceedings Volume 5037, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII; (2003); doi: 10.1117/12.499359
Event: Microlithography 2003, 2003, Santa Clara, California, United States
Abstract
The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a full field, alpha class Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool that has demonstrated the printing of 70 nm resolution scanned images. The tool employs Mo/Si multilayer optics that reflect EUV radiation (13.4nm / 92.5eV) with ~67% peak reflectance per optic. For good reflectivity, many (greater than or equal to 40)Mo/Si layers must be present. Consequently, processes such as plasma induced multilayer erosion, which reduces the number of bilayer pairs on plasma facing optics, need to be understood. Since most materials readily absorb EUV photons, it is important to prevent contamination of mirror surfaces with EUV absorbing material. Contamination can occur by EUV photons “cracking” hydrocarbons or other species absorbed on the optical surfaces. The first ETS condenser component, referred to as C1, is coated with Mo/Si multilayers. Data collected from Mo/Si witness plates placed at the C1 position indicate erosion, using the Xe Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) spray jet, of 1 bilayer per ~15 million shots. Preliminary experiments with a filament jet yielded a significantly higher erosion rate. In the spray jet studies, erosion was found to depend sensitively on the composition of the residual background environment. Addition of low levels, ~7x10-7 Torr, of H2O to the vacuum background produced oxidation of the Si cap, and significantly slowed spray jet induced erosion. Operation of the plasma changed the environment in the Illuminator Chamber from oxidizing to carbonizing, thereby changing the nature of the contamination found environment at the C3 optic which does not view the plasma directly (and therefore does not erode). The change in environment is attributed to plasma induced outgassing of fluorocarbons in the Illuminator. Due to the non zero conductance between the Illuminator and Main Chambers, fluorocarbons were also found in the Main Chamber during Xe LPP operation. RGA data are presented that document the effect. In the presence of such outgassing, Carbon deposition rates were measured for the C3, and P.O. Box optics. For C3, a C deposition rate of 3 angstrom / 10 million shots was found, while for the PO Box, a C deposition rate of 0.02 angstrom / 10 million shots was found from the data. All data was acquired with no attempt to mitigate C deposition with gas phase additives such as O2.
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Philip A. Grunow, Leonard E. Klebanoff, Samuel Graham, Steven J. Haney, W. Miles Clift, "Rates and mechanisms of optic contamination in the EUV engineering test stand", Proc. SPIE 5037, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, (16 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.499359; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.499359
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KEYWORDS
Plasma

Extreme ultraviolet

Fiber optic illuminators

Contamination

EUV optics

Xenon

Wafer-level optics

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