12 June 2003 Methods to achieve sub-100-nm contact hole lithography
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There are numerous methods being explored by lithographers to achieve contact holes below 100nm. Regarding optical impact on contact hole imaging, very high numerical aperture tools are becoming available at 193nm (as high as 0.9) and various optical extension techniques such as assist features, focus drilling, phase shift masks, and off-axis illumination are being employed to improve the aerial image. In this paper, the impact of the ArF photoresist is investigated. Polymers capable of thermal reflow of larger (~140nm) to smaller (90nm and below) contact holes are presented. Improved materials to achieve the properties necessary for good contact hole imaging for standard single layer resist (SLR) processing are also discussed. State-of-the-art ultra-thin resists (UTR) for contact holes and 193nm bi-layer resist systems are also studied as viable techniques to achieving very small contact holes.
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Tracy K. Lindsay, Tracy K. Lindsay, Robert J. Kavanagh, Robert J. Kavanagh, Gerd Pohlers, Gerd Pohlers, Takafumi Kanno, Takafumi Kanno, Young C. Bae, Young C. Bae, George G. Barclay, George G. Barclay, Subbareddy Kanagasabapathy, Subbareddy Kanagasabapathy, Joseph Mattia, Joseph Mattia, "Methods to achieve sub-100-nm contact hole lithography", Proc. SPIE 5039, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XX, (12 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.485173; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.485173

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