Main-chain-fluorinated base-resins, including tetrafluoroethylene and norbornene derivatives, were synthesized and their fundamental properties, such as transparency at 157 nm and solubility in a standard alkaline developer, were characterized. A high transparency, i.e., absorbance of less then 0.5 μm-1, was achieved by optimizing the polymerization conditions with a variety of counter monomers. It was found that the polymerization conditions could also control the dissolution rates of the fluoropolymers and increased the dissolution rate of unprotected fluoropolymers by about three orders of magnitude, which was sufficient for the alkaline developability. Positive-working resists based on fluororesins were developed and showed good transparency of less than 1 μm-1 at 157 nm, and good solubility in a standard alkaline solution of 0.26-N tetramethylammonium (without any swelling behavior). And an acceptable etching rate as resistant as ArF resists was obtained and 65-nm dense lines could be delineated by the exposure at 157-nm wavelength.